Models of Wisdom

Berlin Wisdom Paradigm


Wisdom: A Metaheuristic (Pragmatic) to Orchestrate Mind and Virtue Toward Excellence (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)


Personal Wisdom: Validation and Age-Related Differences of a Performance Measure (Mickler & Staudinger, 2008)


Balance Theory of Wisdom


Academic Intelligence is not enough. WICS: An expanded model for effective practice in school and later life (Sternberg, 2009)


Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale


Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept (Ardelt, 2004)


Further Models of Wisdom


Defining and Assessing Wisdom: A review of the literature (Bangen, Meeks & Jeste, 2013)




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