Models of Wisdom

Berlin Wisdom Paradigm

Wisdom: A Metaheuristic (Pragmatic) to Orchestrate Mind and Virtue Toward Excellence (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)

Personal Wisdom: Validation and Age-Related Differences of a Performance Measure (Mickler & Staudinger, 2008)

Balance Theory of Wisdom

Academic Intelligence is not enough. WICS: An expanded model for effective practice in school and later life (Sternberg, 2009)

Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale

Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept (Ardelt, 2004)

Further Models of Wisdom

Defining and Assessing Wisdom: A review of the literature (Bangen, Meeks & Jeste, 2013)

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